Peter Wiggin, the last Hegemon, restructured the Hegemony into the Free People of Earth. Soon after its founding, many smaller and weak countries joined the FPE in order to protect themselves from their more powerful neighbors. As the Muslim League, Chinese, and Indian empires collapsed, more influential and larger countries decided to join the alliance. Eventually, all the countries of Earth had joined the FPE except for the United States of America.
Years after its founding, the FPE was more commonly referred to as EarthGov.
Each member country of the FPE had power and roles similar to how states worked in the United States of America. Before Peter Wiggin's death, he acted as the world leader, akin to the President of the United States. After the death of Wiggin, the Congress of the government had the ultimate control and the position of Hegemon was abolished.